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Instead of generating new random SIDs for these accounts, Windows ensures their uniqueness by simply appending a per-account unique number, called a (RID), to the machine SID.The RIDs for these initial accounts are predefined, so the Administrator user always has a RID of 500: After installation, Windows assigns new local user and group accounts with RIDs starting at 1000.

The authority value identifies the agent that issued the SID, and this agent is typically a Windows local system or a domain.After a user logs on to a system, they are represented by their account and group SIDs with respect to object authorization (permissions checks).If two machines have the same machine SID, then accounts or groups on those systems might have the same SID.It’s therefore obvious that having multiple computers with the same machine SID on a network poses a security risk, right? The reason that I began considering New SID for retirement is that, although people generally reported success with it on Windows Vista, I hadn’t fully tested it myself and I got occasional reports that some Windows component would fail after New SID was used.When I set out to look into the reports I took a step back to understand how duplicate SIDs could cause problems, a belief that I had taken on faith like everyone else.A token is a data structure the Windows kernel defines to represent the account and it contains the account’s SID, the SIDs of the groups that the account belongs to at the time it authenticated, and the security privileges assigned to the account and the groups.

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